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美国60个学术团体齐发声:担忧美国的学术开放与合作

撰文 | 叶水送
最近一段时间,由于担心外部势力影响美国的基础科学并窃取知识产权,美国国会以及科研管理机构加大了对国外学者的审查(主要以华人学者为主),并开除了数名华人学者。部分华人学者以辞职或提前退休的方式,离开美国。
  
 
美国60个学术团体联署致信美国白宫科学顾问办公室、美国国家科学基金会和美国国立卫生研究院,对美国政府关于外国势力的一系列行动表示担忧。
 
9月4日,美国科学促进会等60个美国主流学会及学术团体,联名致信美国白宫科学顾问办公室(OSTP)、美国国家科学基金会(NSF)、美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)、美国能源部(DOE)以及美国国防部(DOD),对当下的局面表示担忧。
 
 
“我们需要平衡开放合作的科研环境与保护经济以及国家安全之间的关系,如果当下的举措过于广泛,而没有一个更具针对性的目标,这种平衡将受到影响。” 该联名信认为,目前美国政府审查的范围过于广泛,已影响到正常工作的科研工作者。
 
联署此次公开信的学术团体包括美国数学学会、物理学会、化学学会、纽约科学院等,它们均为美国主流的学会组织及学术团体。
 
“我们的组织和成员看到,美国以及国际科学家正在愈来愈担忧,为减少国家安全风险而制定的新政策和程序将对美国的科学事业产生意想不到的后果”,公开信表示, “来自美国以及其他国家的许多科学家,他们恰当地遵循行为准则、法规、政策和法律,但因其他人的不端或非法行为,而受到伤害。”
 
这些学术团体还认为,半个世纪以前,美国之所以成为全球科学与技术的中心,主要是因为他们拥有吸引全球的科学家和学生的能力,这些科学家为全球的科学事业做出了卓越贡献。他们同样也能驱动美国科学与技术的发展。
 
但如今,由于对科研诚信以及国家安全的关注,美国国会及其职能部门加大了对国外势力的审查,包括在美国学习、工作以及同美国科研机构合作的研究人员。
 
“一方面我们应当小心保护研究,另一方面我们必须确保美国是一个理想的以及受欢迎的学术目的地。” 该公开信表示。
 
公开信继续表示,在国家安全和开放、合作的科研环境之间保持平衡,需要聚焦和谨慎的调查,而不应将审查的范围扩大,伤害到其他正常的工作人员。
 
目前,美国不少高校响应国会的政策,开始系统性地排查“国外势力”的渗透。7月份,美国两党参议员还推出了《保护美国研究法案》(Secure American Research Act),以防止外部势力干预、渗透美国的基础科学。
 
受这一系列政策影响,部分华人学者业已离开美国或提前退休,返回中国并非他们的唯一选择,也有部分学者选择去新加坡等国家或地区。
 
 联名信单位 
 
American Anthropological Association
American Association for Anatomy
American Association for Dental Research
American Association for the Advancement of Science 
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy 
American Association of Immunologists
 
American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) American Association of Physics Teachers
American Astronomical Society
American Chemical Society
 
American Educational Research Association American Geosciences Institute
American Institute of Biological Sciences American Institute of Physics
 
American Mathematical Society
American Meteorological Society
American Nuclear Society
American Physical Society
American Physiological Society
American Society for Cell Biology
American Society for Engineering Education
American Society for Microbiology
American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics American Society of Agronomy
 
American Society of Human Genetics
American Statistical Association
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Association of American Medical Colleges
Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists Biophysical Society
 
Coalition for the Life Sciences
Crop Science Society of America
Ecological Society of America
Entomological Society of America
Federation of American Scientists Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Geological Society of America
 
Institute of Food Technologists
Institute of Mathematical Statistics
International Academy for Systems and Cybernetic Sciences NAFSA: Association of International Educators
National Cave and Karst Research Institute
New Mexico Academy of Science
New Mexico Geothermal LLC
New York Academy of Sciences
Paleontological Society
 
Parapsychological Association
Research!America
Social Science Research Council
Society For Biomaterials
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) Society for Neuroscience
 
Society for the Study of Evolution
Society of Toxicology (SOT)
Soil Science Society of America
The International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE) The Oceanography Society
 
OSA—The Optical Society
Western North American Region (WNAR) of the International Biometric Society (IBS)
 
 公开信原文 
Dr. Kelvin Droegemeier, OSTP Dr. Chris Fall, DOE
Dr. France Córdova, NSF Dr. Michael Griffin, DOD Dr. Francis Collins, NIH
Washington, DC
 
Dear Drs. Droegemeier, Collins, Córdova, Fall, and Griffin:
 
As leading science, engineering and international education organizations – representing hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers and educators around the world – we recognize the need to maintain a balance between an openly collaborative scientific environment and protecting our economic and national security. However, that balance will be compromised if actions are implemented that take an overly broad approach to addressing a critical issue at the forefront today, rather than a more targeted response. Any response should consider the impact on both the overall scientific enterprise and on individual scientists and its development should include the input of the science and engineering community.
 
Our organizations and members are witnessing an escalating concern among U.S. and international scientists that new policies and procedures under consideration to minimize security risks will have the unintended effect of harming the scientific enterprise. Many scientists—both U.S. citizens and foreign nationals—who properly follow codes of conduct, regulations, policies and laws, may inappropriately be harmed in response to the misconduct and illegal actions of others.
 
As you know well, for more than half a century, the U.S. has been the undisputed global leader in science and technology. This leadership is due, in large part, to the U.S. ability to attract scientists and students from around the world, who make countless contributions to the global scientific enterprise. Scientific progress and U.S. economic development have been vastly accelerated by bringing international minds together and has helped to drive innovation and discoveries in cancer and genetics, the physics of gravitational waves, advancements in green chemistry, improving food safety, and other significant contributions.
 
Recent events make clear that scientific integrity and security concerns are compelling the federal government—both Congress and the Executive Branch—to revisit policies and procedures regarding foreign nationals who study, work or collaborate with U.S. scientific and academic institutions.
 
While we must be vigilant to safeguard research, we must also ensure that the U.S. remains a desirable and welcoming destination for researchers from around the world. Finding the appropriate balance between our nation’s security and an open, collaborative scientific environment requires focus and due diligence.
 
We ask that you consider a wide range of stakeholder perspectives as your agencies work together through the new NSTC Joint Committee on Research Environments to develop policies and procedures that address issues related to international researchers’ participation in the U.S. scientific enterprise, and we would welcome the opportunity to work with you.
 
Thank you for your consideration.
 
 参考资料
美国两党参议员推出《保护美国研究法案》,尝试建立完善的问责制度
http://www.zhishifenzi.com/news/multiple/6563.html
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